Daewoo Chevrolet Kalos
|Manufacturer||GM Daewoo (General Motors)|
|Also called||Chevrolet Kalos Chevrolet Lova Daewoo Gentra Daewoo Kalos Holden Barina (TK) Pontiac G3 Pontiac G3 Wave Pontiac Wave Suzuki Swift+ ZAZ Vida|
|Production||2002–2011 (South Korea) 2002–present (under license)|
|Model years||2004-2011 (South Korea) 2009–present (Mexico)|
|Assembly||China: Shanghai Colombia: Bogotá Ecuador: Quito India: Halol Kazakhstan: Ust-Kamenogorsk Mexico: San Luis Potosí (San Luis Potosí Assembly) Poland: Warsaw Russia: Kaliningrad South Korea: Bupyong Thailand: Rayong Ukraine: Zaporizhia Vietnam: Hanoi|
|Successor||Chevrolet Aveo (T300)|
|Body style||3-door hatchback 4-door sedan 5-door hatchback|
|Layout||Front-engine, front-wheel drive|
|Engine||1.2 L I4 petrol 1.4 L I4 petrol 1.5 L I4 petrol 1.6 L I4 petrol|
|Transmission||4-speed automatic 5-speed manual|
|Wheelbase||2,480 mm (97.6 in) (2002–07 hatchback & sedan; 2007–11 hatchback) 2,489 mm (98.0 in) (2007–11 sedan)|
|Length||3,880 mm (152.8 in) (2002–07 hatchback) 4,235 mm (166.7 in) (2002–07 sedan) 3,920 mm (154.3 in) (2007–11 hatchback) 4,318 mm (170.0 in) (2007–11 sedan) 4,315 mm (169.9 in) (2012–present sedan)|
|Width||1,670 mm (65.7 in) (2002–07 hatchback & sedan) 1,680 mm (66.1 in) (2007–11 hatchback) 1,710 mm (67.3 in) (2007–11 sedan) 1,709 mm (67.3 in) (2012–present sedan)|
|Height||1,485 mm (58.5 in) (2002–07 hatchback & sedan) 1,505 mm (59.3 in) (2007–11 hatchback & sedan)|
|Curb weight||970–1,150 kg (2,100–2,500 lb)|
The Chevrolet Aveo (T200) (// ə-VAY-oh) is the first generation of the Chevrolet Aveo, a subcompact automobile manufactured since 2002 by GM Daewoo, the South Korean subsidiary of General Motors — originally marketed as the Daewoo Kalos and prominently marketed as the Aveo. The model received the T200 internal codes, used first by Daewoo, and then, by GM Daewoo during the car's development. The T250 code was designated for the model's facelift.
Designed, engineered and originally marketed by GM Daewoo, the Aveo superseded the Daewoo Lanos and was marketed worldwide in 120 countries under five brands (Chevrolet, Daewoo, Holden, Pontiac, and Suzuki). In its home market of South Korea, the T200 was known as Daewoo Kalos, before being rebranded Daewoo Gentra. In several Asian, Australasian, and European export markets, the "Daewoo Kalos" name was also used, only to be later renamed "Chevrolet Aveo" or Holden Barina in the case of Australasia. Other names used include Chevrolet Lova in China and Pontiac G3 in the United States, selling alongside the "Chevrolet Aveo" version. In Canada, the name Pontiac Wave was originally used, followed by Pontiac G3 Wave, before adopting the "Pontiac G3" name used in the United States. Since 2003, Suzuki has also sold a version in Canada as the Suzuki Swift+ alongside the Chevrolet and Pontiac badged versions. T200's successor, the T300 was released in 2011. The Swift+ was dropped after the 2011 model year due to poor sales along with the entire Suzuki brand, although Suzuki Canada lists 2010 as the final model year Swift+.
The Daewoo Kalos was introduced in 2002, based on a then-new Daewoo platform named T200, replacing the Daewoo Lanos (T100). Under development before Daewoo's bankruptcy, the Kalos was the company's first new model introduction following its subsequent takeover by General Motors. Manufacture of the Kalos began in early March, 2002, with pre-production prototypes shown at the Geneva Auto Show in April 2002. The nameplate Kalos derives from the Greek word καλός (kalós) for "beautiful" and "good".
Designed by Italdesign, the Kalos derives directly from the Kalos Dream concept vehicle first presented at the 2000 Paris Motor Show and subsequent developmental concepts at the 2001 Frankfurt Motor Show, 2002 Geneva Auto Show, and 2003 at the Geneva Show. During this three-year development period Daewoo was struggling financially, with the ultimate fate of the company and the concept vehicle remaining uncertain.
Two different T200 front-end styling designs were sold. When released in 2002, the T200 headlamps were detached from the horizontal amber turn signal strip, located directly below. This detached style, used primarily in South Korea and North America, was used in conjunction with a semi-elliptical grille. When sales in Europe began in 2003, the headlights were an integrated unit that slanted upwards from the "V-shaped" grille towards the front fenders. In Australia, when the Daewoo Kalos was introduced in 2003, the hatchback featured the integrated lighting arrangement, with the detached style used to differentiate the sedans. In South Korea, where the detached lights were used at first, the integrated design was later utilized as a facelift.
The T200 sedan and five-door hatchback featured a swage line running along the lower body to the rear door, which kinks downward prominently on the five-door. Five-doors also feature a side window in the C/D pillar with a distinctively angled lower edge. Interiors feature a circular motif throughout. Upon introduction the initial European models carried an emblem reading "Design Giugiaro." Referring to his firm's design of the Kalos, Giorgetto Giugiaro said: "When we designed it, we set out to produce an alternative to conventional lines and tread new paths in terms of design."
The Kalos was sold in three available body styles: a 4-door sedan and 5-door hatchback from the beginning of production in 2002, and a 3-door hatchback available in certain European markets beginning in 2005. All body styles meet North American subcompact and European supermini or B-segment size classifications. The interior volume was 102.7 cu ft (2,910 L) (5-door) and 107.4 cu ft (3,040 L) (sedan) according to the EPA, meeting the minimum criterion for a compact vehicle despite being marketed as a sub-compact. Headroom was unmatched in its class at the time of its introduction. Per the German Verband der Automobilindustrie (VDA) standard, 5-door hatchbacks featured 175 litres (6.2 cu ft) of cargo space with the rear seats in their upright positions and 735 litres (26.0 cu ft) with the rear seats folded down, with a maximum payload rating of 495 kg (1,091 lb).Per U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ratings, the 5-door hatchbacks featured cargo volume of 11.7 cubic feet (330 L) (rear seats up) to 42 cu ft (1,200 L) (rear seats down), with 7.1 cu ft (200 L) available in the sedan.
Daewoo's now disbanded Worthing Technical Centre in the UK conducted the initial research and platform engineering, with Daewoo's main Technical Center in Bupyong, Incheon, South Korea completing the majority of the later development programme. Daewoo engineers refined the chassis in Britain, on the proving ground at Motor Industry Research Association near Nuneaton, UK.Long-term testing covered nearly 2.2 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) with further testing outside South Korea on test sites in Arjeplog, Sweden; Granada and El Vendrell, Spain; Kapuskasing, Canada and Beijing, China. According to an April, 2003 GMDAT press release, Daewoo built 119 prototypes during the Kalos's design and development, crashing 31 for research and data-gathering purposes, and manufacturing 39 pilot production vehicles to verify standards and quality.
The body's sheet metal panel gaps were kept to 3 mm (0.1 in) and all but the roof panel were galvanized steel. 46% of the Kalos' underlying structural components were produced with high-strength steel, with tailor-welded blanks used in the production of the vehicle to put strength where needed while saving weight. The front suspension used MacPherson struts with offset coil springs and a stabilizer bar, while the rear featured a semi-independent torsion beam axle.
The body featured a drag coefficient of 0.35, with a frontal area of 2.16 m2 (23.3 sq ft) giving aerodynamic resistance of 0.74 m2 (8.0 sq ft).All Kalos iterations featured high H-point seating within a relatively narrow, short and high-roofed body that combined a long wheelbase with short front (81 cm/32 in) and rear (49 cm/19 in, hatchback) overhangs to maximize the outward visibility, interior space and maneuverability for the vehicle's footprint. Rear seat H-points are higher in all body types, giving the car theatre seating.
- The interior features Isofix child seat anchorages.
- The T200 features a slot specifically for holding toll tickets in the instrument panel adjacent to the steering wheel.
- The optional four-speed automatic has a “hold” feature that causes the four speed automatic to behave like a three speed manual: that is, it 'holds' the transmission in the gear which is selected. Useful for engine braking down long grades.
- Kalos models and their variants are marketed as entry-level vehicles in various trim levels globally with options unusual at entry-level: including AM/FM/CD/MP3 audio, steering wheel mounted radio controls, power locks and windows, remote keyless entry, and heated sideview mirrors and power sunroof.
- Common equipment includes tilt steering column, six-way adjustable driver seat, rear-window defroster, remote fuel door and a 60/40 split-bench folding rear seat. The instrument panel includes a tachometer, speedometer, odometer, trip odometer, fuel gauge, coolant temperature gauge and lighting dimmer control. The IP also has a center storage tray, lighter, extra 12-volt outlet, digital quartz clock and lighted glove box.
The Aveo has generally not been rated highly by consumer agencies and automotive reviewers. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety reported in 2011 that "The Aveo does poorly in IIHS crash tests and receives the second lowest score of Marginal in roof strength, side impact and rear crash tests. It receives a higher score of Acceptable in front offset tests." The relatively high profile of the hatchback model, in particular, makes it susceptible to crosswinds and degrades handling somewhat.
The Kalos models have been tested in at least four international New Car Assessment Programs, the results reflecting varying equipment and the differences in the tests themselves. Based on market priorities and price point control, some safety equipment is either unavailable or available only as extra-cost options (including side airbags, ABS, foglights and a rear center position three-point seatbelts and headrests.)
South Korea: models received four stars for both driver and front-seat passenger in crash tests conducted by the Korean Automobile Test and Research Institute (KATRI).
GM introduced a revised sedan at Auto Shanghai 2005, designed in cooperation with PATAC. Bearing the internal code T250 and sold in South Korea as the "Daewoo Gentra", the revision comprised primarily interior and exterior styling changes, a new interior instrument panel and minor equipment changes, including increased sound deadening. Incorporation of the radio antenna into the rear glass and extensive wind tunnel testing helped reduce the coefficient of drag from 0.348 to 0.326.
A restyled hatchback with the sedan's updated instrument panel was presented as the Chevrolet Aveo during the Frankfurt Motor Show 2007, to be marketed in Europe and North America. The Korean market's restyle of the hatchback, the Gentra X, featured a less distinct/more "normal" grille treatment that formed the basis for the Holden, Pontiac and Suzuki-branded variants.
Later iterations, including the Kalos, Aveo, Barina and Gentra sedans, the Gentra X hatchback and the 2007 "Frankfurt Show" hatchbacks were styled in-house and with the assistance of PATAC, and depart notably from the original Giugiaro exterior and interior styling designs.
With launch of the Gentra X in South Korea, GMDAT had replaced engines of T250. 1.2 L S-TEC II inline-four engine was updated with features such as dual overhead camshaft (DOHC) and timing chain (older version has timing belt) system. 1.6 L E-TEC II engine had replaced with ECOTEC (GEN-III) engine with new features such as variable valve timing mechanism.
- 1.2 L (73 cu in) SOHC I4 – South Korea, Europe, India, China
- 1.4 L (85 cu in) SOHC I4 – Europe
- 1.4 L (85 cu in) DOHC I4 – Europe, Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, India, Philippines
- 1.5 L (92 cu in) SOHC I4 – South Korea, Europe, South Africa, Philippines, Pakistan, Ukraine
- 1.6 L (98 cu in) SOHC I4 – ?
- 1.6 L (98 cu in) DOHC I4 – North America, Venezuela, Australia, China, India, Ukraine
Kalos/Aveos models are assembled in the Bupyong plant in South Korea. In Ukraine, Russia and Colombia, local versions of the Aveo are assembled from complete knock down kits, in Venezuela; the local commercialized version are now imported from Colombia. For the Chinese market, Aveos and Lovas are manufactured by Shanghai GM Dongyue. In India, Aveos are assembled from Halol Plant. Also in Egypt GM assembly plant started in August 2007 producing the Aveo locally in three variants. Beginning in August 2008, Chevrolet Aveos are also produced at the new General Motors San Luis Potosí plant located in Mexico.
- South Korea
The T200 was sold as Daewoo Kalos; the hatchback named 'Kalos V' and the sedan simply Kalos. The tagline from the very first advertisements was 'It's beautiful – Hi! Kalos'. Daewoo began selling the T250 sedan in September 2005 as the Daewoo Gentra, replacing the Kalos sedan. "Gentra" is derived from the English word "gentleman" and "transportation". The tagline in the advertising campaign introducing the Gentra in Korea was "Are you gentle?", and the campaign starred Daniel Henny. In October 2007, the Kalos hatchback adopted the T250 underpinnings and was renamed Gentra X. The Kalos won, twice consecutively (2003 and 2004), the Korea Design Power Index (KDPI) conducted by the Korean Management Association (KMA) and deriving from interviews and an internet polling of 20,000 consumers in Korea's six largest cities
The T250 sedan is sold as "Chevrolet Lova" in China. It was facelifted in 2009, receiving the front end of the T250 hatchback.
The T250 was launched in India in 2006 as Chevrolet Aveo along with the slogan "An Indian Revolution", referencing Chevrolet's An American Revolution ad campaign. The T200 hatchback has been sold in India since December 2006 as the Chevrolet Aveo U-VA. Interestingly, the Aveo was promoted in the Bollywood film Ta Ra Rum Pum with decals on the race cars, but the cars were ARCA-spec Chevrolet Monte Carlos.The television commercial of the Chevrolet Aveo UV-A features Bollywood actor Saif Ali Khan.
The T250 Sedan is sold as the Chevrolet Aveo in Thailand. In February 2008, the Aveo was awarded the ‘Green Label’ environmental certificate by the Thailand Environmental Institute, being recognized for its 'minimal impact on the environment in comparison to other passenger cars in Thailand'. This made Chevrolet the first automobile brand in Thailand to have won this award twice in a row. As of 2010, the Chevrolet Aveo is sold with either a 1,399 cc or 1,598 cc 16V DOHC E-TEC II engine with VGIS variable length intake manifold. The 1.4 grades are MT Manual transmission or AT Automatic transmission 'Base', MT/AT 'LS' and AT 'LSX'. The 1.6 grades are AT only 'LT', 'LSX', 'LUX' and 'SS'. All models except the 1.6 LT are configured to used E20 fuel.
As of 2011, VIDAMCO of Vietnam produces the T250 sedan in complete knock-down (CKD) form at its Hanoi production facility. The VIDAMCO model was launched in Vietnam on January 20, 2006 under the name "Daewoo Gentra".
The T200 model was available as the "Daewoo Kalos" before Daewoo's Australian operations ceased at the end of 2004 and was absent from the Australian market until re-introduced in December 2005 as the TK Holden Barina (3-door and 5-door). The TK Barina replaced the previous XC Barina, which was an imported and rebadged European Opel Corsa. The T250 sedan was introduced in February 2006, and both the T200 and T250 models are sold together as the Barina lineup. The switch from the Opel-sourced Corsa was criticized, given the Kalos' lower ANCAP safety performance. The T250 hatchback, both 3-door and 5-door, was introduced in August 2008.
Until the end of 2004, the T200 was sold as "Daewoo Kalos" in Western Europe. In early 2005, the Chevrolet brand replaced the Daewoo brand and the Kalos was rebadged the "Chevrolet Kalos", coinciding with the introduction of the three-door. The new T250 sedan is marketed as the "Chevrolet Aveo" replacing the Kalos sedan in 2006. A revised hatchback was introduced in the 2007 Frankfurt Motor Show, to go on sale in early 2008 as the Aveo—replacing the Kalos. In Italy there exists a variant of the Aveo called the Chevrolet Aveo Eco Logic. This low emission version has a dual power LPG engine 1.2 and 1.4 16V.
The T200 was sold in Eastern Europe as "Chevrolet Aveo" from its introduction in 2003. The T250 has replaced the T200 sedan in 2006, retaining the same name. Versions sold in this region had 1.4 L engines, and were available as both five-door hatchback and four-door sedan. In 2006 it was announced that FSO in Warsaw, Poland, would begin assembling the Aveo under a joint venture between GM and FSO's owner, the Ukrainian company UkrAVTO. Production of the sedan started in November 2007, while the hatchback was assembled from July 2008. Starting from April 2008, they were delivered in the rest of the European markets too. Production in Poland ended in February 2011, when UkrAVTO decided moving it to Ukraine, where it would be assembled only for the local market and the CIS states. This comes also as an effect of the free trade agreement reached between South Korea and the European Union, that took effect from 1 July 2011. In March 2012, UkrAVTO began to manufacture the car on full-scale under the ZAZ brand.
The basic equipment that is standard across all versions of the Chevrolet Kalos from 2005 to 2008
The T200 models were introduced to the US and Canada 2004 models at the 2003 (February) Chicago Auto Show as the Chevrolet Aveo to replace the Daewoo Lanos when Daewoo withdrew from many markets outside South Korea in 2002. The US 5-door and 4-door models went on sale in November 2003, and as reported by the Boston Globe in November 2006, "the Aveo (was) the largest-selling subcompact in the United States"
The Aveo was introduced for its market debut in a 60 second television advertisement that first appeared on New Year's Eve 2003, created by the firm of Campbell-Ewald, directed by Michael Bay and featuring the song Magic Carpet Ride by Steppenwolf. The advertisement was titled "An American Revolution, Car Carrier" and featured six yet to be introduced cars and trucks boarding a car carrier as it traversed the United States. It featured the Aveo descending the Twin Peaks of San Francisco and making an airborne leap highly reminiscent of Steve McQueen's Ford Mustang in the movie Bullitt, before boarding the car carrier. Two other fifteen second TV ads also created by the firm of Campbell-Ewald, spotlighted the Aveo: "Pachyderm" showing an elephant, chased down a city street by an Aveo and "Big Little," in which four basketball players who enter the car appear tiny in big seats, highlighting the vehicle's interior volume.
In February 2004 GM issued a "stop delivery" order, to investigate five accidents that occurred in a tight time frame just as the Aveo was introduced to the US market. The order was lifted shortly thereafter, after an investigation revealed no connection among the accidents.
The T250 sedan debuted in January 2006 as the 2007 Chevrolet Aveo at the Greater Los Angeles Auto Show. Sales commenced in North America in August 2006. Also, 2009 is the first model year of the Aveo for Mexican sales, replacing the Opel-based Chevrolet Corsa.
The Aveo 5-door hatchback was marketed as the "Aveo5" in Canada since its inception and in the US beginning with model year 2007. The models were sold as Pontiac Wave (4-door and 5-door, since the 2005 model year) and Suzuki Swift+ (5-door) in Canada. The T200 Wave sedan was replaced for the 2007 model year with the T250, coinciding with the release of the 2007 T250 Aveo. For the 2009 model year, Pontiac Wave was renamed to Pontiac G3 Wave in Canada. In the United States, Pontiac sold the 5-door hatchback as the Pontiac G3 starting in the spring of 2009. Because of General Motors phasing out the Pontiac brand, the Pontiac G3/Wave is no longer manufactured after the 2010 model year, and the last Pontiac G3 Wave rolled off the line in December 2009, making this the last overall Pontiac vehicle to roll off the line, even though the last Pontiac for the American market was the 2010 Pontiac G6. The Pontiac G3 has the distinction of being the last Pontiac-badged model introduced to the United States market before the brand's 2010 demise. For the 2010 model year, Canadian models are simply referred to as Pontiac G3.
In Mexico, the T250 sedan went on sale as a 2009 model, replacing the Opel-based Chevrolet Corsa and GM Daewoo-built Pontiac G3, after the GM announcement of discontinuing the Pontiac brand following the 2009 model year in Mexico and the 2010 model year elsewhere. It is produced in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. From the May 2010 model year, the GM badges next to the doors were removed. From the 2012 model year, the Aveo underwent a facelift, receiving a similar front-end with the one of the hatchback. It is no longer sold in the United States and Canada.
For the Canadian market the Swift+ was created with a joint between GM Daewoo and Suzuki, after Suzuki stopped selling the previous model Swift in 2001. The Swift+, a version of the Daewoo Kalos, was introduced in fall 2003 and marketed solely as a 5-door hatchback. For the 2009 model year, the Suzuki Swift+ was updated in styling and a new Opel ECOTEC 106 hp 1.6 engine receiving 7.9 L/100 km for city and 5.7 for highway from the previous 8.9/5.9, shared with the Pontiac G3 Wave and Chevrolet Aveo.
2005: Sidemarker lights change from orange to clear. Black trim applied to B-pillars of all models and C-pillars of hatchbacks.
2006: Rear Spoiler changes from "hugger" style to pedestal style spoiler with several inches of clearance from body.
2007: Sedans were redesigned. The grille was made all new, making similar to the 2005–2008 Chevrolet Uplander, but 2004–2006 models got the chrome bar running in the grille, similar to that of the 2000–2003 Chevrolet Malibu (the Chevrolet logo color was changed from blue to tan). Deleted: 4-door SVM equipment group, Aveo5 LT model. New Features: 6-disc in-dash CD player and MP3 playback audio system, restyled 4-Door Model, new neutral interior in clot and leatherette, steering wheel mounted audio controls, aux input jacks on all 4-door and LS radios, sedan instrument panel and door accents in wood appearance, metallic grain appearance or silver appearance trim on LS and LT models, manual lumbar adjuster on driver seat, driver seat armrest, back glass antenna on 4-door models. Changes: power outside mirrors now on both driver and passenger, Aveo 5-Door models are called Aveo5. Available Spring Edition in Maui Blue (metallic), with alloy wheels, power windows, power moonroof, upgraded stereo with auxiliary input, keyless remote access, power door locks, foglamps and interior silver accents.
2009: Hatchbacks were redesigned. For the grille, it was made similar to the all new 2008 Chevrolet Malibu. In the T250 2008.5 Aveo and sedan, 15" 5-spoke aluminum wheels, E-TEC II 1.6L engine, Carbon fiber appearance accents were deleted. New features included a new exterior and interior design, charcoal perforated leatherette seating surfaces, OnStar and standard on all models, available XM Satellite Radio, available leather-wrapped steering wheel wand shift knob are now included with perforated leatherette seating surface option, Driver Information Center with outside temperature display and fuel economy/driving range function, new 15" 5-spoke aluminum wheels, GM Oil Life Monitoring System, ECOTEC 1.6L DOHC 16-valve 4-cylinder MFI engine with Variable Valve Timing and Dual Continuous Variable Cam Phasing (107 hp @ 6400 rpm, 106 lb·ft (144 N·m) of torque @ 3800 rpm), 5-speed manual transmission to include shift indicator light. Changes included a new-good-better-best packaging strategy labeled as 1LS, 1LT and 2LT. Power Package called Power and Convenience Package, aux input included on all radios, front wipers variable intermittent, front doors, driver and front passenger seatback map pockets on all models, Alternator 95 amps. Deletions, Additions and Changes per GM's public online order guide. This is the only model year for the Pontiac G3 in the United States.
2010: GM badges disappear on Chevrolet Aveo models, even though early 2010 models did have GM badges. Also, the G3 enters its final model year only in Canada, but drops the "Wave" name, making the Pontiac G3 nameplate exclusive to Canada after the United States & Mexico dropped the Pontiac G3 name.
The Aveo has received mixed reviews, while it has earned praise from many for its very low price tag, it has been criticized for poor fuel economy (compared with other vehicles in its class) and poor reliability by reviewers such as Consumer Reports and JD Power and Associates