Ford C-Max 2nd Generation
|Also called||Ford C-Max Hybrid and Ford C-Max Energi (North America)|
|Model years||2011–present (Europe) 2013–present (North America)|
|Assembly||Valencia, Spain Wayne, Michigan (hybrids)|
|Predecessor||Ford Escape Hybrid (North America)|
|Body style||5-door MPV|
|Platform||Ford Global C platform|
|Engine||1.6 L Duratec Ti-VCT I4 1.6 L EcoBoost I4 1.6 L Duratorq TDCi I4 2.0 L Duratorq TDCi I4|
|Transmission||5-speed manual 6-speed manual 6-speed automatic|
|Wheelbase||2,648 mm (104.3 in)|
|Length||4,380 mm (172.4 in)|
|Width||1,828 mm (72.0 in)|
|Height||1,626 mm (64.0 in)|
|Curb weight||1,374–1,550 kg (3,030–3,400 lb)|
|Related||Ford Focus Mk III|
Alongside the third generation Ford Focus Mk III, the second generation C-Max (C344) is built on Ford's new Global C platform. The appearance is inspired by the Iosis Max concept, shown at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show. In addition, Ford added a long wheelbase, seven-seat minivan variant of the C-Max, the Ford Grand C-Max
The vehicle was unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show.Early European models include 5 seats, and 7-seat models entered the market at the end of 2010 (except Russia, where there is only the 7-seat model). At the 2011 North American International Auto Show, Ford announced a 7-seat C-MAX for the North American market. However, this model was cancelled prior to launch.
Ford unveiled the Ford C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid and the C-Max Hybrid at the 2011 North American International Auto Show. Like the conventional C-Max, the C-Max Energi and Hybrid are five-seat only. They replace the Ford Escape Hybrid and Mercury Mariner Hybrid since Ford discontinued the Mercury brand after the 2011 model year and the Escape Hybrid after the 2012 year model. The C-Max is Ford's first hybrid-only line of vehicles. Both the plug-in and hybrid version designs are based on the European gasoline- and diesel-powered versions.
The C-Max Hybrid was released in the United States in September 2012 as a 2013 model year, followed by the release of the plug-in Energi version by mid October 2012.
The new Mk III platform is the first in its class to support Torque Vectoring Control (TVC).
The redesigned C-Max features flat folding third row seats, a hands free power lift gate, rear view camera, park assist, and panoramic sunroof. HD Radio, Sirius XM, Sync, dual-zone climate control system, and navigation system come as standard or as available options on the different trim lines.
The aerodynamics (drag coefficient, cw) of the car has been improved, being 0,30 for the 5 seater and 0,32 for the Grand C-Max.
Conventional engines and transmissions
Like the previous C-Max, the new C-Max also comes with a range of petrol and diesel four-cylinder engineswhich are shared with the Focus.
1.0 L Ecoboost comes available in two states of tune, alongside the 1.6 - 100 hp and 125 hp guises. 1.6 LDuratec Ti-VCT is available in three spec, 85PS, 105 hp (78 kW) and 125PS
1.6 L EcoBoost comes with 150 hp (112 kW) or 182 hp (136 kW) variant, same as in Focus
1.6/2.0 L Duratorq TDCi Ford/PSA made diesels are upgraded, Ford's 1.8 L Endura engine is not available any more
. They come in 110 hp and 140 hp for the 1.6 and 2.0 respectively.
1.0 EcoBoost (125bhp) Performance
|Top Speed||116 mph|
|0-60 mph||11 secs|
|Torque||200 Nm, 148 ft-lb|
|CO2 Emissions||117 g/km|
|Euro Emissions Standard||5|
|Miles Per Tank||665 miles|
Transmissions mated with engines are Ford IB5 (1.6 Duratec Ti-VCT), B6 (1.6 EcoBoost/1.6 Duratorq), Durashift MMT6 (2.0 Duratorq) manual and Ford Powershift double-clutch transmission available with the 2.0 Duratorq engine.
Ford developed the C-Max Hybrid with the aim to become "America’s most affordable hybrid utility vehicle." The gasoline-electric hybrid model base pricing starts at US$25,995, including destination and delivery.
The front-wheel drive hybrid has a 2-liter four-cylinder Atkinson cycle engine mated to an electric motor and a 1.4 kWhlithium-ion battery for total power output of 188 hp (140 kW). The top speed in all-electric mode of 62 mph (100 km/h) and the car's top speed in hybrid mode is 115 mph (185 km/h).
The hybrid has a maximum cargo volume of 52.6 cu ft (1,490 L) with rear seats folded flat, and 24.5 cu ft (690 L) in the cargo area behind the rear seats, providing more room than the regular Prius liftback, but less cargo room than the Prius v, which provides 67.3 cu ft (1,910 L) with the rear seats folded.
Cabin & Luggage
|Luggage Capacity||666 litres|
|Unbraked Towing Weight||695kg|
|Braked Towing Weight||1200kg|
The Hybrid is offered in two trims:
The SE features eco-friendly cloth seating surfaces, Ford SYNC system with A/M-F/M stereo with single-disc CD/MP3 player, USB and auxiliary input jacks, six speakers, a multi-informational gauge cluster and color display screen, keyless entry, alloy wheels, and split-folding rear bench seat, plus a security alarm.
The SEL adds leather seating surfaces, MyFord Touch with AM/FM HD Radio stereo with single-disc CD/MP3 player and USB and auxiliary input jacks, a Sonypremium surround sound system, SIRIUS Satellite Radio, power dual front seats, keyless access, push-button start system, and other luxury features.
The Energi Plug-In Hybrid is only available in SEL trim.
Ford's design aimed for the C-Max Hybrid to deliver better fuel economy than the Toyota Prius v. Ford had reduced its estimated fuel economy twice, once in 2013 and again in 2014, with the second revision placing fuel economy below the Prius V. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initially rated the hybrid model at 47 mpg-US (5.0 L/100 km; 56 mpg-imp) with the same rating for combined/city/highway cycles. These ratings allowed the C-Max Hybrid to improve the fuel economy of the Toyota Prius v by 3 mpg-US on the city cycle, by 7 mpg-US on the highway cycle and by 5 mpg-US combined. However, after criticism and lawsuits about worse-than-expected real-world fuel economy, in August 2013 Ford voluntarily lowered the EPA ratings and issued customer rebates. The revised fuel economy ratings were reduced to 45 mpg-US (5.2 L/100 km; 54 mpg-imp) for city driving, 43 mpg-US (5.5 L/100 km; 52 mpg-imp) for combined and 40 mpg-US (5.9 L/100 km; 48 mpg-imp) for highway. The revised rating for the updated 2013 C-Max Hybrid is still better than the 42 mpg-US(5.6 L/100 km; 50 mpg-imp) combined rating for the Toyota Prius v. A second downward revision was made during June 2014.
Ford also announced in July 2013 that it would boost the on-road fuel efficiency of its three 2013 model year hybrids through changes in the cars' vehicle control software in an effort to improve customer satisfaction. The upgrade will be offered free of charge to existing owners of these hybrids. Some of the changes include:
- Increasing the maximum pure electric speed from 62 to 85 mph (100 to 137 km/h), allowing increased use of electric-only mode on the highway
- Optimizing the use of Active Grille Shutters to reduce aerodynamic drag under more driving and temperature conditions including cold weather, during air conditioner use and when the engine coolant temperature is higher
- Reducing the electric fan speed as a function of coolant temperature to minimize the fan’s energy consumption
- Shortening engine warm-up time by up to 50% to enable electric-only driving and engine shutdown at stops sooner after cold starts
- Optimizing the climate control system to minimize use of the air conditioning compressor and reduce the energy used in cold weather operation.
A total of 969 units were sold during September 2012, allowing the C-Max Hybrid to rank as the ninth-best selling hybrid car in the United States that month.During October, its first full month in the market, 3,182 units were sold, outselling the Prius v by more than 400 units, which had ranked as the fourth most sold hybrid in the previous months. Sales of the C-Max Hybrid also led Ford to achieve its best October hybrid sales month ever with a total of 4,612 sales, up 142% over October 2011. Ford reported that 25% of C-Max Hybrid sales took place in California, with Los Angeles and San Francisco as the top selling regional markets. A total of 10,935 C-Max Hybrids were sold during 2012,and a total of 28,056 units in 2013. After Ford cut the car's EPA fuel economy rating by 4 miles (6.4 kilometers) per gallon to 43 mpg in the middle of 2012, the car experienced its three worst sales months since it debuted in the U.S.Since its inception, a total of 72,330 units have been sold in the United States through December 2015.
Fuel economy controversies
In December 2012, Motor Trend reported that Consumer Reports and Green Car Reports have found that the 2013 Ford C-Max Hybrid and 2013 Ford Fusion Hybrid, which share the same powertrain, do not deliver their triple 47 mpg-US (5.0 L/100 km; 56 mpg-imp) EPA ratings in real-world use. After running both vehicles through Consumer Reports real-world tests, the magazine found that C-Max hybrid achieved a combined fuel economy average of 37 mpg-US(6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg-imp), with 35 mpg-US (6.7 L/100 km; 42 mpg-imp) and 38 mpg-US (6.2 L/100 km; 46 mpg-imp) for city and highway.Green Car Reports found that the C-Max delivered 37 mpg-US (6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg-imp) over 50 mi (80 km) of mixed freeway and urban driving, and 40 mpg-US (5.9 L/100 km; 48 mpg-imp) over 240 mi (390 km) mostly at freeway speeds.
Consumer Reports concluded that the overall fuel economy for the C-Max Hybrid is off by 10 mpg, representing a deviation of about 20%. The consumer magazine said that their overall fuel economy results are usually close to the EPA's combined-mpg estimate, and among current models tested, more than 80% fall within 2 mpg margin. The largest discrepancy the magazine has previously found was 7 and 6 mpg for the Toyota Prius C and the Prius hatchback, respectively. Ford responded in a statement, saying that, "Early C-MAX Hybrid and Fusion Hybrid customers praise the vehicles and report a range of fuel economy figures, including some reports above 47 mpg. This reinforces the fact that driving styles, driving conditions, and other factors can cause mileage to vary."
A few days later the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) said it will review claims that two new Ford hybrid vehicles are not delivering the advertised 47 mpg. Linc Wehrly, Director of Light-duty Vehicle Center Compliance Division at EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigancommented that hybrids have far more variability in miles per gallon than a conventional vehicle. All vehicles are run through the same EPA fuel-efficiency test but the test is not administered by the EPA, instead the automakers conduct the test and EPA often conducts reviews. Most vehicles' real-world gas mileage is less than the EPA sticker number, and can often be 20% less than the sticker number depending on speed, temperature and other factors. The EPA explained that with hybrids the gap is much wider, as high as a 30% drop.
The problem lies with EPA's rules that allow automakers to group similar vehicles together and apply the same ratings and Ford did exactly that with the Fusion hybrid and C-Max hybrids.
Ford Motor Co. officials said the real-world fuel-efficiency in the C-Max Hybrid depends on driving style and other outside factors, and the company does not expect the car's fuel efficiency numbers to change, as they followed EPA's test guidelines. A Ford spokesman also said they are working closely with the EPA to determine if any changes are needed for the industry relative to hybrid vehicle testing. The carmaker explained that several factors can affect hybrid fuel economy more than regular gasoline engines, and among the differences highlighted were speed, as the difference between 75 mph and 65 mph can produce a 7 mpg difference in fuel economy; outside temperature, the difference between 40 °F and 70 °F can result in a 5 mpg difference; and vehicle break-in, the difference from 0 miles to 6,000 miles can be a 5 mpg difference.
Due to the criticism and lawsuits, in July 2013 Ford announced that it would boost the on-road fuel efficiency of the C-Max and the other two 2013 hybrids through changes in the vehicle control software in an effort to improve customer satisfaction. In August 2013, the carmaker voluntarily reduced the official EPA ratings in August 2013. Ford also announced it will issue rebates to some 32,000 C-Max owners who will be notified by mail. The payment will be US$550 to U.S. customers who purchased a C-Max and US$325 to customers who have leased the hybrid car.
After the Ford announcement, the EPA stated that it will update the test procedures used to assign fuel economy ratings to cars "to ensure that the requirements keep pace with industry trends and innovations in advanced high-efficiency vehicles." Ford used the Fusion Hybrid test to generate the fuel economy label for the C-Max Hybrid following EPA's rules. These, which date to the 1970s, specify that automakers can use the same fuel economy numbers for similar-size vehicles equipped with the same engines and transmissions. The EPA requires automakers to test the fuel economy of the biggest-selling model in a specific category. In its midsize hybrid class, Ford tested the Fusion sedan version because it was the top seller, and Ford was allowed to apply the 47 mpg-US(5.0 L/100 km; 56 mpg-imp) achieved with the Fusion Hybrid in combined, city and highway driving to the C-Max hybrid. Ford has no plans to change the fuel economy ratings on the 2013 Fusion hybrid.