Honda Civic Hybrid History Range
|Assembly||Suzuka, Mie, Japan (2001-2012) Indiana, United States (2013-) Swindon, England, U.K. (2013-)|
|Body style||4-door sedan 5-door hatchback (2013-, Europe)|
|Layout||Front-engine, front-wheel drive|
The Honda Civic Hybrid is a hybrid powertrain version of the Honda Civic, first introduced in Japan near the end of 2001. It is the first hybrid vehicle to be certified as an Advanced Technology Partial Zero- Emissions Vehicle (AT-PZEV) from California's Air Resources Board.
The Civic Hybrid uses an Integrated Motor Assist hybrid system similar to Honda Insight. Early models from 2001 to 2005 used a 5-speed manual transmission, but models since then feature a continuously variable automatic transmission. The Civic Hybrid was only available as sedan until 2013, when the hatchback will be added to its lineup.
The Civic hybrid ranks as the second-best-selling electric hybrid car in the U.S. As of the end of January 2009, the total global sales of all Civic hybrid exceeded 255,000.
First generation (2001–2005)
|Model years||2003–2005 (U.S.)|
|Engine||1.3 L LDA series I4 SOHC|
|Transmission||5-speed manual CVT|
|Wheelbase||103.1 in (2,619 mm)|
|Length||2003: 174.6 in (4,435 mm) 2004-05: 175.4 in (4,455 mm)|
|Width||67.5 in (1,715 mm)|
|Height||2003: 56.7 in (1,440 mm) 2004-05: 56.3 in (1,430 mm)|
The first generation of the Honda Civic Hybrid was based on the seventh generation Honda Civic. It was the first mainstream vehicle from Honda equipped with a gasoline-electric hybrid system and became the second hybrid model of the company after Insight. Model with manual transmission was rated city 46 mpg-US (5.1 L/100 km; 55 mpg-imp) / highway 51 mpg-US (4.6 L/100 km; 61 mpg-imp) according to United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fuel mileage estimates,about the same combined mileage as for the Toyota Prius, and became the most fuel-efficient five-passenger sedan ever sold in North America at the time.
The following is a list of its technical features
- Twin spark plugs light the lean fuel-air mixtures sent to the two-valve combustion chambers.
- 1.3-litre single overhead cam i-DSI lean-burn internal-combustion engine with VTEC Cylinder Cut-off System, which allows three cylinders to deactivate during deceleration. The engine generates 85 hp (63 kW) at 5,700 rpm and 87 ft·lb (118 N·m) of torque at 3300 rpm.
- Idle stop - when stopped at traffic light, the engine shuts off automatically, then restarts immediately when the driver takes their foot off the brake, contributing to both greater fuel efficiency and lower emissions.
- 10 kW (13 hp) brushless, permanent magnet assist motor, which functions as a generator during deceleration recharging the batteries (regenerative braking).
- Combined output of both engine and electric motor is 93 hp (69 kW) at 5,700 rpm. Maximum torque is rated 116 ft·lb (157 N·m) at 1,500 rpm for manual transmission models and 105 ft·lb (142 N·m) at 3,000 rpm for CVT models.
- 144 V Nickel-metal hydride batteries with 6.0 A·h capacity.
- Honda Multimatic S continuously variable transmission or 5-speed manual transmission.
- ULEV or AT-PZEV certification by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).
- Low rolling resistance tires (P185/70R14) on aluminum wheels and regenerative braking.
- Electric power-steering.
An electric motor is sandwiched between the gasoline engine and the transmission, providing up to 13 horsepower. The motor also acts as a generator, to recharge the car's nickel-metal hydride battery located between the rear seat and the trunk, and as a starter motor.
The motor in Civic hybrid is about a quarter-inch (6.4 mm) thicker than that of the Insight. Through improvements to the magnetic coils of the DC brushless motor, it achieves 30 percent greater assisting and regenerative torque than the previous model without increasing the size.
It generates more torque (46 versus 36 pound-feet) than the motor in Insight. The electricity is stored in a battery consisting of 120 1.2-volt Ni-MH D-cells wired in series. The battery can charge and discharge more rapidly and efficiently though the total capacity is reduced from the Insight's (6.0 versus 6.5 AH). Efficiency of the battery modules is increased, through a reduction in energy losses. The battery is housed with the electrical controller in a package called the Intelligent Power Unit (IPU). The new packaging reduces the size of the system by 50 percent and allowed to place the IMA equipment behind the rear seat in the trunk. The unit weighs only 63 lb (29 kg) and is one-third smaller than that of the Insight.
The two spark plugs in each cylinder can fire either sequentially or simultaneously, enabling more efficient burning during lean-burn mode and more often lean-burn operation. The engine can operate at a lean 22:1 air-to-fuel ratio more than 60 percent of the time on a flat road. The VTEC cylinder idling system of the engine closes the valves in three of the four cylinders when the car is decelerating, reduces the power lost to the engine by 50 percent and allows the IMA to extract more electrical energy during braking. The rocker arms operating the intake and exhaust valves have two modes: valve-lift mode or idle mode. They are engaged via a synchronizing piston. During deceleration, the synchro piston disengages the lift-mode rocker arm so that the valves remain at rest, effectively sealing off the cylinder.
An idle stop feature shuts off the engine automatically when stopped, then restarts immediately when the driver removes their foot from the brake. This auto idle stop system contributes to both greater fuel efficiency and lower emissions. During stop and go driving, the engine will turn off when the car comes to a stop for the first time, however, if the car does not go above 10 mph (16 km/h) and stops again, the engine will not turn off unless the car is stopped for more than 15 seconds.
With assistance from the electric motor, the combined torque at below 3,700 rpm is greater than that available from the non-hybrid Civic's 1.7-liter engine.
Fuel efficiency further improved by six percent by utilizing: a new front air dam and rear spoiler, along with revised underbody panels, reducing the drag coefficient from 0.30 to 0.28; replacing traditional power steering with electrical power result as reduction in parasitic losses and special lower rolling resistance tires. The Dunlop tires improves ride quality and reduces road noise compared with other hybrids like Insight and Prius. When compared with Insight, a wider tire improves stability at highway speed. Car and Driver reported that the car can accelerate 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 10.9 seconds.
The Civic hybrid is estimated to be 40 percent more fuel efficient than its non-hybrid counterpart.In reality, a very low consumption as specified can be reached by very moderate acceleration, keeping the engine speed below 2000 rpm, and avoiding speeds above 50 mph. Driving at higher speeds or uphill will increase fuel consumption.
|Gasoline: 1.3 L LDA series I4 SOHC Electric: 156 volt 15 kW|
|106.3 in (2,700 mm)|
2006-08: 176.7 in (4,488 mm)(USDM) 2006-08: 4,540 mm (178.7 in)(JDM)2009: 177.3 in (4,503 mm)
|69.0 in (1,753 mm)|
|56.3 in (1,430 mm)|
|2,877 lb (1,305 kg)(USDM) 1,260 kg (2,778 lb)(JDM)|
The second generation Civic Hybrid is based on the eighth generation Civic. As with other Civics, there are some styling differences to the exterior between the North American and the Japanese market models.
The powertrain of the second generation Civic hybrid is similar to that of the first generation.
The following is a list of major changes:
- Updated to fourth generation Integrated Motor Assist (IMA)
- more powerful electric motor of 20 hp (15 kW)
- 158.4 V (132 x 1.2 V) Nickel-metal hydride batteries with 5.5 A·h capacity that is 12% smaller.
- Updated to three stage i-VTEC and VCM (Variable Cylinder Management), which permits deactivation of all four cylinders when cruising at moderate speed to run on electric power only. Engine output is increased to 93 hp (69 kW) at 6,000 rpm and maximum torque to 89 ft·lb (121 N·m) at 4,500 rpm.
- Combined output of both engine and electric motor is 110 hp (82 kW) at 6,000 rpm. Maximum torque is rated 123 ft·lb (167 N·m) at 2,500 rpm.
- A new hybrid compressor for the air-conditioner.
- The continuous variable transmission provides a 9% wider range between the maximum and minimum gear ratios for better acceleration and reduced engine rpm at high speeds.
- Discontinued manual transmission option.
- The U.S. EPA fuel economy estimate is increased to city 49 mpg-US (4.8 L/100 km), highway 51 mpg-US (4.6 L/100 km). (In 2008: EPA revised the way it estimates fuel mileage, as a result, the EPA rating for the 2008 model is: city 40 mpg-US (5.9 L/100 km), highway 45 mpg-US (5.2 L/100 km)).
- Updated to 15-inch lightweight aerodynamic alloy wheels (later featured on the Civic DX-G in Canada as well).
- Certified as AT-PZEV throughout 50 states.
By using high-performance magnets and high-density windings, Honda is able to increase the power output of the electric motor by 50% to 20 hp (15 kW) at 2,000 rpm when compared with the first generation. The inverter that controls motor speed is integrated with the motor's ECU for more precise control, resulting in greater efficiency and fuel economy. The output of battery is increased by around 30 percent to 158.4 V. The battery storage box is designed for better cooling performance and vibration resistance to enhance long-term reliability. The higher output of electric motor enables the car to run on electricity only, at a steady 15–20 mph (24–32 km/h) when cruising on a flat surface.
An internal electric motor is added to the air-conditioner, so it can be powered by either the engine, an electric motor, or both. At a stop, the compressor powered by the battery keeps the cabin cool. An additional compressor that is powered by the petrol engine also engages if rapid cooling is required. When the interior temperature is stable, air conditioning is provided by the battery solely. As soon as the brake pedal is lifted, the petrol engine comes back to life again.
The new three stage i-VTEC valvetrain has low-rpm, high-rpm and cylinder idle mode. High output valve timing help the engine to increase its output by 9 percent. During deceleration, the engine is kept idle. There are no combustion in all four cylinders and the cylinders are sealed shut, reducing pumping losses by engine. As a result, recovery of energy wasted during braking is improved by 10 percent.
A digital display is incorporated in the instrument dash showing how much electricity is sent to the battery or how much is used. When the car is braked moderately, maximum number of green LEDs light up showing energy recaptured. When the car is braked harder, the conventional brakes are activated.
Car and Driver found the car, when compared with previous generation, faster, offered greater refinement, quieter at highway speed, has a stiffer body and a revised suspension that handles bumps better and quietly.
It is estimated that, when compared to a gasoline engine only Civic sedan of 2006 with an automatic transmission, the Civic hybrid provides an increase of fuel economy in city driving of about 63 percent and an increase of fuel economy in highway driving of about 27 percent.
Many Civic hybrid owners are not happy with the gas mileage claims made by Honda and have filed a class action lawsuit against Honda. One Civic hybrid owner is so upset that she filed suit in small claims court against Honda
The Civic hybrid was introduced to Malaysia in August 2007. It was launched in China in November 2007 and in India in June 2008.
24 Hours Nürburgring
Honda Civic Hybrid has competed in 24 Hours Nürburgring in 2007, finished in 108th. The twenty-four hours race around the Nürburgring, one of the world's most grueling courses. To race successfully in that course is considered a testament to the capability of Civic's hybrid powertrain.
Jim Clark Challenge Rally
Honda Cvic hybrid, in Group N spec, raced in the Jim Clark rally and took second in class.
|Model years||2011–present (U.S.)|
The latest Civic Hybrid was launched during 2011 in the U.S. and Canada as a 2012 model. It has a larger 1.5-liter i-VTEC engine that produces 90 horsepower and 97 pound-feet of torque and a lithium-ion battery pack instead of nickel-metal hydride. The larger engine replaces the 1.3-L engine for better mid-range torque The DC brushless permanent magnet motor, which is placed between the engine and continuously variable transmission, provides 17 kW (23 hp) and 78 pound-feet of torque and weighs 0.7 kg (1.5 lb) lessThe 2012 Civic Hybrid has an EPA rating of 44 mpg-US (5.3 L/100 km; 53 mpg-imp) for the city and highway driving cycles, an improvement from 40 mpg-US (5.9 L/100 km; 48 mpg-imp) city and 43 mpg-US (5.5 L/100 km; 52 mpg-imp) highway for the previous generation.
The Civic Hybrid has the latest Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) parallel hybrid system, with a new 20 kW lithium-ion battery — a first for a Honda hybrid vehicle.The new battery is 5 kW more powerful, 9 kg (20 lb) lighter and takes up 36% less space. Battery capacity is increased from 35 kAh to 100 kAh.
It comes with improved aerodynamics and Honda ECO Assist technology. The ECO Assist technology is an information system to help the driver adopt a more fuel-efficient driving style, and is proven to improve fuel economy by about 10% for Honda's hybrid vehicles in Japan.
Production of the Civic hybrid sedan will be moved from Suzuka (Japan) to Indiana (U.S.A) and Swindon (England) in early 2013. As of this, sales of Civic Hybrid sedan in Europe will be ended and replaced by its European hatchback version within retaining hybrid powertrain.