Land Rover Defender
|Body style||3-door station wagon (Ninety) 5-door station wagon (One-Ten) 2-door Single Cab pickup (Ninety) 4-door Double Cab pickup (One-Thirty) 2-door Hardtop (Ninety,One-Ten,One-Thirty)|
|Engine||2.5 L 107 hp (80 kW) I4 turbo diesel (1990-1994) 2.5 L 111 hp (83 kW) I4 turbo diesel (1994-1998) 3.9L 182 hp (136 kW) V8 petrol 2.5 L 122 hp (91 kW) I5 turbo diesel 2.4 L 122 hp (91 kW) I4 turbo diesel 2.2 L 122 hp (91 kW) I4 turbo diesel|
|Transmission||LT77 5-speed manual R380 5-speed manual ZF 4HP22 4-speed automatic GFT MT-82 6-speed manual|
|Wheelbase||92.9 in (2,360 mm) (90) 110 in (2,794 mm) (110) 127 in (3,226 mm) (130)|
144 in (3,658 mm) (90 pickup) 153 in (3,886 mm) (2000s 90) 172 in (4,369 mm) (110 Pickup) 182.3 in (4,630 mm) (2000s 110) 183 in (4,648 mm) (110 Hardtop) 174.7 in (4,437 mm) 157.1 in (3,990 mm) (1997-2000s 90) 160.5 in (4,077 mm) (1990-94 90) 181.1 in (4,600 mm) (1990s 110)(130 Double Cab) 204 in (5,182 mm) (130)
|Width||70.5 in (1,791 mm) (1990s) 70 in (1,778 mm) (2000s 90)|
|Height||80 in (2,032 mm) (2000s 90) 80.2 in (2,037 mm) (1990s 90) 90.0 in (2,286 mm) (110)|
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The biggest change to the Land Rover came in late 1990, when it became the Land Rover Defender, instead of the Land Rover Ninety or One Ten. This was because in 1989 the company had introduced the Discovery model, requiring the original Land Rover to acquire a name. The Discovery also had a new turbodiesel engine. This was also loosely based on the existing 2.5-litre turbo unit, and was built on the same production line, but had a modern alloy cylinder head, improved turbocharging, intercooling and direct injection. It retained the block, crankshaft, main bearings, cambelt system, and other ancillaries as the Diesel Turbo. The breather system included an oil separator filter to remove oil from the air in the system, thus finally solving the Diesel Turbo's main weakness of re-breathing its own sump oil. The 200Tdi as the new engine was called produced 107 hp (80 kW) and 195 lb·ft (264 N·m) of torque, which was nearly a 25% improvement on the engine it replaced (although as installed in the Defender the engine was de-tuned slightly from its original Discovery 111 hp (83 kW) specification due to changes associated with the turbo position and exhaust routing).
This engine finally allowed the Defender to cruise comfortably at high speeds, as well as tow heavy loads speedily on hills while still being economical. In theory it only replaced the older Diesel Turbo engine in the range, with the other 4-cylinder engines (and the V8 petrol engine) still being available. However, the Tdi's combination of performance and economy meant that it took the vast majority of sales. Exceptions were the British Army and some commercial operators, who continued to buy vehicles with the 2.5-litre naturally aspirated diesel engine (in the Army's case, this was because the Tdi was unable to be fitted with a 24 volt generator). Small numbers of V8-engined Defenders were sold to users in countries with low fuel costs or who required as much power as possible (such as in Defenders used as fire engines or ambulances).
Along with the 200Tdi engine, the 127's name was changed to the Land Rover Defender 130. The wheelbase remained the same; the new figure was simply a tidying up exercise. More importantly, 130s were no longer built from "cut-and-shut" 110s, but had dedicated chassis built from scratch.
1994 saw another development of the Tdi engine, the 300Tdi. Although the 200Tdi had been a big step forward, it had been essentially a reworking of the old turbocharged diesel to accept a direct injection system. In contrast the 300Tdi was virtually new, despite the same capacity, and both the Defender and the Discovery had engines in the same state of tune, 111 bhp (83 kW), 195 lbf·ft (264 N·m).
Throughout the 1990s the vehicle attempted to climb more and more upmarket, while remaining true to its working roots. This trend was epitomised by limited-edition vehicles, such as the SV90 in 1992 with roll-over protection cage, alloy wheels and metallic paint and the 50th Anniversary 90 in 1998 equipped with automatic transmission, air conditioning and Range Rover 4.0-litre V8 engine.
A new variant was the Defender 111 Double Cab, featuring a Station Wagon style seating area, with an open pick up back. Although prototypes had been built in the Series days, it was not until the late 1990s that this vehicle finally reached production.
Land Rover South Africa offered a unique Defender during the period the group was owned by BMW. Between 1997 and 2000, the Defender 90 and 110 were offered with a BMW petrol engine alongside the normal Tdi engine. The engine was the BMW M52 2800 cc, straight-six, 24-valve engine as found in the BMW 328i, 528i, 728i and the Z3. Power and torque output for this engine was 142 kW (190 hp) @ 5500 rpm and 280 N·m (207 lb·ft) @ 3500 rpm. This option was offered due to a demand for a petrol-driven alternative to the diesel engine after production of the V8 Defender had ended. The vehicles were built at Rosslyn outside Pretoria. Total production for the 2.8i was 632 Defender 90s and 410 Defender 110s. Early models were not speed-restricted, but later models were limited to 160 km/h.
In 1998 the Defender was fitted with an all-new 2.5-litre, five-cylinder in-line turbodiesel engine, badged the Td5. The Tdi could not meet upcoming Euro III emissions regulations so the Td5 replaced the Tdi as the only available power unit. The engine used electronic control systems and produced 122 hp (91 kW) @ 4850 rpm, 11 hp (8 kW) more than the Tdi, with improved refinement. Traditionalists were critical of the electronic systems deployed throughout the vehicle, but concerns that these would fail when used in extreme conditions proved unfounded.
For the 2002 Model Year further refinements were made to the Td5 engine to help it achieve ever-more stringent emission regulations. The "XS" Station Wagon was introduced in 2002 as a top-specification level and the "County" package could be applied to every model in the line-up. XS models come with many "luxury" features, such as heated windscreen, heated seats, air conditioning, ABS & Traction Control and part-leather seats. At the same time other detail improvements were made including a dash centre console, improved instrument illumination and the availability of front electric windows for the first time on a Defender. The design faults of the two-piece rear station wagon door were finally eradicated with a one-piece door featuring a rubber weather sealing strip for the rear window.
From Spring 2007 a series of changes were made to the Defender, most of which were implemented to meet emissions and safety legislation. The biggest change was to the drivetrain. The Td5 engine was replaced by an engine from Ford's DuraTorq line (AKA the puma engine), built in their factory in Dagenham, making the Td5 the last Land Rover engine to be built in-house at Solihull. The engine chosen was from the ZSD family, being a version of the 2.4-litre four-cylinder unit also used in the highly successful Ford Transit. The engine's lubrication and sealing system has been adapted for use in wet, dusty conditions and to maintain lubrication at extreme angles in off-road use. The power level remains the same at 122 hp (91 kW), but with a lower power peak speed for towing and better acceleration. Torque output rose from 221 lb·ft (300 N·m) to 265 lb·ft (359 N·m) due to the fitting of a variable-geometry turbocharger. This produces a wider spread of torque than the Td5, from 1500 rpm to 2000 rpm. The engine is mated to a new six-speed gearbox. First gear is lower than the previous gearbox for better low-speed control, whilst the higher 6th gear is intended to reduce noise and fuel consumption at high speeds.
The other major changes were to the interior. The dashboard layout of the original One Ten from 1983 (which was in turn very similar to that used on the Series III from 1971) was replaced with a full-width fascia and different instrumentation. Instruments came from the Discovery 3, and some of the centre panels come from the Ford Transit. Some steering column switchgear was carried over from the previous interior. A new heater/ventilation system improved de-misting and heater performance.
Other interior changes were to the seating layout. Legislation from the European Union outlaws the inward-facing seats used in the rear of previous Land Rover Station Wagons. The 2007 Defender replaced the 4 inward-facing seats with two forward-facing seats. This makes the Defender 90 Station Wagon a four-seater vehicle (reduced from six or seven), and the Defender 110 Station Wagon a seven-seater (reduced from nine). This brought the Defender in line with its competitors which have generally used this layout for many years. A new bodystyle was introduced on the 110 Station Wagon chassis- the 'Utility'. This was a five-door Station Wagon body but with the rearmost seats removed and the rear side panels left without windows, producing a 5-seater vehicle with a secure, weatherproof load space.
The only external changes were detail changes. The bonnet was reshaped with a bulge to allow the new engine to fit in the engine bay whilst meeting pedestrian safety rules. The new dashboard and ventilation system necessitated the removal of the distinctive air vent flaps underneath the windscreen which had been a feature of previous Land Rover utility models since the 1950s. Whilst the flaps have been deleted, the bulkhead pressing remains the same, so the outlines of where the flaps would be are still present.
At the other extreme, basic models are available for commercial users, such as emergency services. The models are sold in over 140 countries. A range of special conversions are available that include hydraulic platforms, fire engines, mobile workshops, ambulances, and breakdown recovery trucks. The 130 remains available with the 6-seater HCPU bodystyle as standard.
Export and foreign-built versions
Defender in Australia
In the 1980s the Australian Army ordered Defenders made to their own specification, called the Land Rover Perentie, some of which were 6x6 drive. The Perentie has proven to be highly vulnerable to land mines, and the Army's new specification calls for optional armour. To date the Perenties are being replaced with unarmoured Mercedes G-Wagens. Whilst the Defender has been in use in the Australian military for many years, as a consumer product it has lagged far behind 4x4 work vehicle offerings from Toyota and Nissan in popularity. Mid 2009 Land Rover expanded the model range to include 110 and 130 Cab-Chassis, Panel Van and High Capacity Pick-up versions and late in the year announced the re-introduction of the 90 station wagon model for sale from early 2010.
Defender in the USA
In 1993 Land Rover launched the Defender in the North American (i.e. the United States and Canada) market. Although the Range Rover had been sold there since 1987, this was the first time utility Land Rovers had been sold since 1974. To comply with the strict United States Department of Transportation regulations, ranging from crash safety to lighting, as well as the very different requirements of American buyers, the North American Specification (NAS) Defenders were extensively modified. The initial export batch was 525 Defender 110 County Station Wagons: 500 to the United States and 25 to Canada. They were fitted with the 3.9-litre V8 petrol engine and five-speed manual transmission. All of the vehicles were white (except one specifically painted black for Ralph Lauren). They sported full external roll-cages and larger side-indicator and tail-lights. All were equipped with the factory-fitted air conditioning system.
For the 1994 and 1995 model year Land Rover offered the Defender 90, fitted with a 3.9-litre V8 engine and a manual transmission which was clearly intended to compete with the Jeep Wrangler. Initially, the Defender 90 was only available as a soft-top, but later version was offered with a unique, removable, fibre-glass roof panel or regular Station Wagon hard-top.
In the final year of US production the engine was improved, designated 4.0 and mated to a four-speed automatic transmission. In 1998, regulations changed to require the fitting of airbags for both front seat passengers in all vehicles, as well as side door impact requirements. The Defender could not be fitted with these without major modifications, which given the small numbers of NAS vehicles sold in relation to Land Rover's global sales, were not economically viable. Land Rover retired its utility vehicles at the end of 1997 to focus on its more upmarket Discovery and Range Rover models, as well as the then newly launched Freelander.
Land Rover Defender vehicles have been used by many of the world's military forces, including the US in some limited capacity, following experience with the vehicle during the first Gulf War, where US forces found the British Army's vehicles to be more capable and better suited to operation in urban areas and for air-lifting than the Humvee. The British Army has used Land Rovers since the 1950s, as have many countries in the Commonwealth of Nations. The British Army replaced its Series III fleet with One Tens in 1985, with a smaller fleet of Nineties following in 1986. Both used the 2.5-litre naturally aspirated diesel engine. These older vehicles are reaching the end of their service lives, with many being sold onto the civilian market from the late 1990s.
In 1994 Land Rover created the Defender XD (XD= eXtra Duty) to replace and complement these vehicles. Powered by 300Tdi engines, the XD has a much stronger chassis, with fibre webbing around the welded joints in the chassis and around stress points to massively increase load capacity. The XD was available both in Defender 90 and 110 forms and known to the British Army as Land Rover Wolves. Usually 110-inch (2,794 mm) Soft or Hard Tops, they are used for patrol, communications and supply duties. 90XDs are less common, but are generally ordered as Soft Top or Hard Top vehicles for light liaison and communications. Short-wheelbase vehicles lack the load capacity needed by modern armies, and the increased power of heavy-lift helicopters has made the larger 110s easily air-transportable- a historic advantage of the smaller, lighter 90.
Land Rover offered its "Core" military Defenders with the 300Tdi engine rather than the more powerful but more complicated Td5 engine offered in civilian vehicles. Before the 300Tdi engine was introduced, military Land Rovers were offered with 2.5-litre petrol and diesel engines, as well as the 3.5-litre V8 petrol. Although trials with the Td5 engine proved it to be reliable in battlefield conditions, it was decided that servicing and repairing its electronic control systems should they fail was too complicated and reliant on having diagnostic computers available. Land Rover were also unable to guarantee they could make the Td5 resistant to electro-magnetic interference.
The British police have used Land Rovers (including the Defender) in their service for many years, they are supplied with the entire range from Land Rover itself.
In 2004 a fleet of 12 Long wheelbase 110 Td5 Land Rovers were produced for the central German Government, varying between 110 Vans, 110 Hi-capacity pick-ups and 110 Station wagons. The German Government did not renew the supply contract after 2006 instead turning to Mercedes for their logistics fleet.
Vehicles produced for the German Government order were produced in metallic grey with white roofs. The electrical installation on these vehicles was a special order and kept "luxury" fittings and fixtures to a bare minimum. Four FFR equipped vehicles were produced to facilitate the VHF radios in service at that time with the German Government and Police authorities. Following the change-over to the Mercedes contract, the German Central Government sold their Td5 fleet.
With 300Tdi production stopping in 2006, Land Rover set up production of a military version of the 4-cylinder Ford Duratorq engine that is also used as a replacement for the Td5 in civilian vehicles.
The British Army's Land Rovers have been the subject of criticism following recent operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The majority of British Service Land Rovers carry no armour-plating and the composite armoured SNATCH Land Rover (originally designed to withstand small arms fire and hand-launched projectiles as experienced in Northern Ireland) is not immune to the larger roadside bomb and rocket attacks. Some have called for British troops to be equipped with Humvees, or other such vehicles. However, similar criticisms have been levelled at the American vehicle. Other proposals include the South African made RG-31 or similar larger and more heavily armoured trucks or armoured vehicles that provide greater protection.
There have been many rumours about a replacement vehicle type. This is most likely the larger, higher-capacity 4x4 or 6x6 Pinzgauer forward-control vehicle similar to the now disused Land Rover 101 Forward Control, given that the current Land Rover design is also reaching its weight limits due to the increasing amounts of communications and weapons gear used by modern patrol forces.
In recent years Land Rover has occasionally produced Special Editions of the Defender. These have usually been little more than a vehicle being fitted with certain option packs and equipment, although more bespoke Editions have been produced. Mostly they have been aimed at the more lucrative 'lifestyle' market than the Defender's usual commercial and off-road markets.
In 1992 the first Special Edition Land Rover Defender was produced. Called the 90SV (SV stood for 'Special Vehicles', as all the vehicles were produced by Land Rover's Special Vehicle Operations department), they were painted turquoise and were fitted with a black canvas Soft Top with standard door tops. Alloy wheels were also fitted, together with rear disc brakes (at that time a first for a Land Rover). Despite the vehicle's sporty looks, it used the standard 200Tdi turbodiesel engine. Only 90 were made for the UK market.
For Land Rover's 50th anniversary in 1998 two special editions were built. The first was the Defender 50th which was essentially a NAS (North American Spec) Defender 90 Station Wagon. It was powered by a 190 hp (140 kW) 4.0-litre V8 petrol engine and was the first Land Rover outside North America to be fitted with an automatic transmission. Air conditioning made them very comfortable vehicles too. For the UK and Europe they were painted Atlantis Blue, a dark green/blue flip-flop colour and had a Safety Devices roll-over protection cage for the front seat occupants. In total 1071 50th Anniversary Defenders were built; 385 for the UK home market, the rest for Japan, Europe and Middle East.
The second 1998 Special Edition was the 'Heritage', intended to hark back to the early days of Land Rover in the 1940s. Available in 90 or 110 Station Wagon form, the Heritage was only available in the two original colours offered by the company — the dark Bronze Green or the light pastel Atlantic Green. A metal mesh-effect front grille, body-coloured alloy wheels and wing mirrors and silver-painted door and windscreen hinges were all employed to make the Heritage look similar to the original Series I of 1948. Inside special instruments were used, with black-on-beige displays. The powertrain was the standard Td5 diesel engine and 4-wheel-drive transmission.
Possibly the best known Special Edition was the Tomb Raider of 2000, built to commemorate Land Rover's role in the first film of that franchise. The Tomb Raider was designed to look like an off-road expedition vehicle. Painted dark metallic grey with special badging and details, the Tomb Raiders came equipped with a roof rack, additional spot lights, winch, bull-bar and snorkel. They were available either as a 90 Station Wagon or a 110 Double Cab, with standard Td5 engines. The Defender actually used in the film (now on display at the Motor Heritage Centre, Gaydon) was actually a highly modified 110 High Capacity Pick Up with a specially fitted and tuned V8 petrol engine and a non-standard interior.
Following the first Land Rover G4 Challenge in 2003, G4-Edition Defenders became available. As well as the distinctive Tangiers Orange colour of the competition vehicles, yellow and black versions were also produced. Defender 90 and 110 Station Wagon versions were available, with front A-Bar, roll-cage, side-steps and front spotlights as standard, as well as G4 badging.
Since then, Land Rover have produced less extravagant Special Editions. The Defender Black was a 90 or 110 County Station Wagon with metallic black paint, roll cage and dark-tinted rear windows. The Defender Silver was a 110 County Station Wagon with silver metallic paint, front A-bar and spotlights, metal wing-protector plates and winch. The 1999 X-Tech was aimed at the commercial market, being a metallic silver 90 Hard Top fitted with County-style seats, alloy wheels and Alpine window lights. The second model year edition in 2003 was better equipped with wing protector plates and air conditioning.
There have also been various special editions of the Defender created by the company's overseas operations for sale in their specific markets such as the 'Sahara' edition and '55th Anniversary' Defender 90s sold in France- the former being a basic-spec Station Wagon painted in a sand-like tan colour and supplied with special decals and the latter being a Station Wagon fitted with numerous luxury options and special badges in the mould of the factory-built 50th editions. Sometimes individual Land Rover dealers have created limited editions of vehicles to suite their markets. A dealer in Scotland created the 'Braemar' edition of 25 vehicles to appeal to local agricultural and forestry buyers, being a 90 Hard Top supplied ready fitted with a winch, off-road tyres, spotlamps and worklamps, underbody protection and chequer plate.
2008 saw Land Rover's 60th anniversary, for which a new series of special edition Defenders were produced. Branded the 'SVX', three models were built. All were painted black with 'satin' effect body graphics on the vehicles sides and bonnet carrying the '60th' logo used throughout 2008 at various special events and on anniversary merchandise. Bespoke 5-spoke alloy wheels were used and a new silver-coloured front grille design was used. This also incorporated a new design of headlamp with the sidelight lamp being integral with the main headlamp unit, allowing the space previously used for the separate sidelight to be used to fit a pair of high-intensity driving lamps. Inside the SVX models gained Recaro bucket seats in the front row, alloy gearlever knobs and a Garmin GPS navigation system. The drivetrain was the standard 2.4-litre diesel and six-speed manual permanent four-wheel-drive transmission. The SVX edition was available as a 110 Station Wagon (only available outside the UK), a 90 Station Wagon and a brand-new design of 90 Soft Top- the first time a Soft Top model had been available through showrooms in the UK since 1992. SVX Soft Tops had only the two front seats- the rear load bay being used to accommodate the spare wheel and a lockable storage box. A new design of hood was used, sloping down towards the rear over a jointed folding frame, unlike the standard square-framed hood used on other Soft Top Land Rovers.
James Bond Skyfall
Land Rover Defender crew cab British Intelligence Driven by Eve Moneypenny with James Bond in the passenger seat. Used in a car chase through Istanbul that precedes the film's opening titles.
1992 Land Rover Defender 90 Wheeler Dealers trading up