Volkswagen air-cooled engine type 1
|Configuration||Flat-4 naturally aspirated petrol engine|
|Cylinder block alloy||Aluminum / magnesium alloy|
|Cylinder head alloy||Aluminum / magnesium alloy|
|Fuel system||Mechanical / Carbeurated|
|Oil system||Wet sump|
The Volkswagen air-cooled engine is an air-cooled boxer engine with four horizontally opposed cast iron cylinders, cast aluminum alloy cylinder heads and pistons, magnesium crankcase, and forged steel crankshaft and connecting rods.
Variations of the engine were produced by Volkswagen plants worldwide from 1936 until 2006 for use in Volkswagen's own vehicles, notably the Type 1 (Beetle), Type 2 (bus, transporter), Type 3, and Type 4. Additionally, the engines were widely used in industrial, light aircraft and kit car applications.
Type 1: 1.1 to 1.6 litres
Like the Volkswagen Beetle, the first Volkswagen Transporters (bus) used the Volkswagen air-cooled engine, a 1.1 litre, DIN-rated 18 kW (24 PS, 24 bhp), air-cooled four-cylinder "boxer" engine mounted in the rear. The 22 kilowatt (29 PS; 29 bhp) version became standard in 1955, while an unusual early version of the engine which developed 25 kilowatts (34 PS; 34 bhp) debuted exclusively on the Volkswagen Type 2 (T1) in 1959. Any examples that retain that early engine today are true survivors - since the 1959 engine was totally discontinued at the outset, no parts were ever made available.
The second-generation Transporter, the Volkswagen Type 2 (T2) employed a slightly larger version of the engine with 1.6 litres and 35 kilowatts (48 PS; 47 bhp).
A "T2b" Type 2 was introduced by way of gradual change over three years. The 1971 Type 2 featured a new, 1.6-litre engine, now with dual intake ports on each cylinder head, and was DIN-rated at 37 kilowatts (50 PS; 50 bhp).
The Volkswagen Type 3 (saloon/sedan, notch-back, fastback) was initially equipped with a 1.5-litre engine, displacing 1,493 cubic centimetres (91.1 cu in), based on the air-cooled flat-4 found in the Type 1. While the long block remained the same as the Type 1, the engine cooling was redesigned reducing the height of the engine profile, allowing greater cargo volume, and earning the nicknames of "Pancake" or "Suitcase" engine. This engine's displacement would later increase to 1.6 litres.
Originally a single- or dual-carburetor 1.5-litre engine (1500N, 33 kilowatts (45 PS; 44 bhp) or 1500S, 40 kilowatts (54 PS; 54 bhp)), the Type 3 engine received a larger displacement (1.6 litre) and modified in 1968 to include Bosch D-Jetronic electronic fuel injection as an option, making it the first mass production consumer cars with such a feature (some sports/luxury cars with limited production runs previously had fuel injection).
Volkswagen 1100 engine
Displacement 1,131 cc (69.0 cu in)
Cylinder bore 75 mm (2.95 in)
Power output 18 kW (24 PS; 24 bhp) @ 3,300 rpm, 22 kW (30 PS; 30 bhp)
1945–1953 Volkswagen Beetle
1950–1953 Volkswagen Type 2
The 30 kilowatts (40 hp) 1.2-litre can be modified by the addition of a big bore kit, which allows bigger cylinders and pistons from the stock 77 millimetres (3.03 in) to 83 millimetres (3.27 in) while keeping the stock crankshaft, cam, head, etc. and providing to a 25% power output increase.
1285cc Single port 1966-1970 Twin port 1971-1975
Volkswagen 1500 engine
Displacement 1,493 cc (91.1 cu in)
Cylinder bore 83 mm (3.27 in)
Piston stroke 69 mm (2.72 in)
Power output 1500N: 33 kW (45 PS; 44 bhp), 1500S: 40 kW (54 PS; 54 bhp)
1493cc Single port only. 1967–1970 in Euro/US Beetle.
1967–1971 VW Puma
Volkswagen 1600 engine
Cylinder bore 85.5mm
Power output single port: 35 kW (48 PS; 47 bhp) dual port: 37 kW (50 PS; 50 bhp)
- Single port
The 1600 single port was used on the following models:
1966–1970 Type 3
1968–1970 Type 2
1970 Beetle (US only)
1970 Karmann Ghia (US only)
- Twin port
The 1600 dual port was used on the following models:
1971 onwards Type 2 (only 1971 in USA - superseded by Type 4 engine)
1971–1974 Karmann Ghia
1971–1989 VW Puma
uprated Volkswagen air cooled engine with twin carbs